Preamble

Biomedical science is the application of biology-based sciences for medical use. Studies in biomedical sciences will bring out the application of biological sciences such  as  physiology,   anatomy, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology , biochemistry and others  to build up knowledge, skills and competences to build on to diagnose,  manage  and prevent diseases.  Other aspects covered include application in health monitoring, product development, biomedical research and innovation, medical education in the various health professional training institutions and regulation of medical and pharmaceutical practice.

Medicine and healthcare have over the past decade became increasingly sophisticated, demanding cross cutting knowledge and skills for effective delivery. The demands of the health sector have also expanded tremendously well beyond the traditional health professionals like the doctors, nurses, and pharmacists because of the ever increasing specialisation. These traditional cadres because of the competing demands can no longer address all aspects  of biomedical research, and training  To address this challenge, the School of Biomedical Sciences at the college of health sciences proposes to start a three-year bachelor of biomedical sciences program.  The program is expected to produce knowledgeable and skilled bio-medical scientists who will take part in various aspects of biomedical science, including   health professional training and medical education, health care delivery and biomedical basic science research. In addition, while the training of Doctors and dental surgeons take 5 years , the first 3 years are spent  mastering the basic biomedical sciences, constituting the first block which are prerequisite ,after which  they continue to clinical medicine clerkships to qualify, This proposed program is an innovation, such that after the first 3 years these students can graduate with bachelor of biomedical sciences, after which they can continue on the different tracks of post graduate education. That may include enrolment on the various biomedical science masters programs, masters in public health, clinical epidymiology, management, and  seeking employment as teachers or tutors in the various health professional, training institutions, or working with research institutions, industries, health sector, self employment, and in addition, pursuing further training in medicine to become doctors, nurses ,and dental surgeons.

Justification

Uganda is experiencing a very  rapid population growth, which  for a long time has  not been matched with sufficient health care delivery, up to date the doctor patient ratio is above 1:12,000, this indicator is even worse for other graduate health professionals such as nurses, dental surgeons to mention a few, as such Uganda and the region has continued to experience a human resource crisis in the health sector ..
The training of these health professionals requires well trained, adequate biomedical  science teachers who are very endangered since, its increasingly difficult to attract medical doctors to these areas when there are more juicy options in other medical disciplines, this has made all the basic sciences graduate programmes very reddudant,attracting less than 3 students a year if lucky and yet not the top grades,
Further more, the training of  Doctors in Uganda, by private institutions is almost impossible because of what it  costs to establish basic science laboratories and facilities for the training doctors and other health professionals in the first 3 years , leave alone the scarcity of the basic science teachers who are being shared among the few medical schools that are coming up,
At the College of  Health  Sciences, we are blessed with these laboratory  facilities, experise,resources and Teachers , and can take advantage of this to train biomedical scientists, in the core biomedical  sciences and after graduation, they can  be admitted to start on the clinical years of medicine, and dentistry like is done in the western world, even institutions with no basic science facilities, but with only teaching hospitals, can now be able to train doctors picking from this pool of graduates. And through this track, the country  and the region can be able to train enough doctors to match the population needs, and gradually improve the doctor patient ratio .

After graduating, Those who don’t aspire for medicine, can take on  the masters track in any of the basic science option of their choice such as microbiology,, and by so doing all the basic science masters programs can have pool to admit from, and these will boost the biomedical  science teachers in the region, some of who will continue as researchers, teachers  tutors and can join other health disciplines like public health,epidymiology,bioinformatics research ethics and management in  biomedical industries. There is also an  increase in number of health professional training institutions, who could for the first time recruit these biomedical scientists.
The biomedical research sector has grown tremendous needing this cadre of expertise for  employment.

These trends demand the presences of biomedical scientists to provide the required human resource that will accelerate the growth of these sectors. It should be noted that most of these sectors are relying on the limited numbers  Doctors for their functioning worsening the human resources crisis in the health sector.
This program will help to alleviate this problem by providing biomedical scientists who have the desired expertise to fill the Human resource gaps that compete for medical doctors  in health care delivery. 

This program also offers an alternative track for students to obtain qualifications in various areas of interest within biomedical and other health related sciences.  This is consistent with the current government policy on the promotion of and increasing student intake in science subjects at all educational levels.

Program goal

To build capacity for enhancement of excellence in health care delivery, biomedical research ,Biomedical training, and acceleration of the training of medical doctors and dentists, and Improved  medical education in all tertially health training institutions, both public and private in Uganda  and the region  at large.                                                                                                                                             

Specific program objectives

1. To produce biomedical scientists with sufficient competencies to enrol on clinical medicine, and other health professional programs, as a postgraduate program.

2. To train biomedical science graduates with knowledge and skills to support health care  delivery in any community in Uganda and the region.
3. To equip graduates with knowledge and skills for safe and scientific biomedical practices.
4.  To produce biomedical science graduates with sufficient Knowledge skills,  and ethical conduct  to work as part of a team in health care delivery.  

5. To produce biomedical science graduates with the necessary entrepreneurial and managerial skills to support biomedical industries in the country

6. To produce biomedical scientists with sufficient competencies to conduct biomedical  research

7. To produce biomedical scientists with sufficient competencies to undertake graduate training in the same specialities to become teachers in biomedical sciences in the various tertiary health  professional   training  institutions in the region.

Curriculum Competencies

In order to achieve these objectives emphasis has been put not only on science subjects but also the behavioural sciences, management, and communication, humanities and social sciences applied to medicine.  It is expected that this will emphasise to the students that the university is a place of learning rather than teaching.  Integrated learning will be done as much as possible to emphasise the following areas in which the biomedical science graduate should be competent:

  • Modern biomedical techniques
  • Medical research and diagnostic procedures
  • Health promotion and prevention of disease
  • Scientific research methods
  • Management, administration and entrepreneurial skills
  • Teaching and learning
  • Community leadership
  • Biomedical ethics

Curriculum characteristics
This  program is made up of short courses that run for 2 to 5 weeks. The courses are sequenced in such a way that one builds on the knowledge of the previous course.

Integration

The medical discipline is characterized by a high level of specialization with a number of well developed specialties. Human function however works as an integral unit. This curriculum integrates the learning experiences both horizontally and vertically. Horizontal integration breaks down the boundaries between disciplines like: Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry that other wise would be taught independently but concurrently to provide a package of learning experiences of the Biomedical Sciences. This does away with the compartmentalization and eliminates repetition of subject content.  Vertical integration ensures that all levels of the learning spiral are integrated, thus students are exposed to Basic Sciences, Clinical experiences and community health activities right from first year.

Problem based approach to learning

This curriculum provides a mix of tutorials, self directed learning sessions, laboratory sessions, seminars, clinical exposure, Clinical clerkship, over view lecturers,   and community based education activities. Small group tutorials guided by real life problems will be the predominant mode of delivery. Students in groups of 5-7 under the guidance of a tutor will explore the problem before them and determine their learning objectives. The learning objectives will then be used as a guide in the self-directed learning sessions. Students will have a report back session during which a tutor will test the competences developed out of the problem. This approach to learning is known to encourage active student learning, critical and analytical thinking, problem solving and promotes life long learning skills. It however requires investment into learning facilities namely; library, computer laboratory and skills training laboratory which shall be put in place by the launch of the program and will be progressively developed.

Community based education activities

Students will randomly distributed to rural health facilities where they will be involved in the community health program of the facility. In the guidance of a site tutor students will support health delivery at the facility and all activities their activities will be recorded and presented for progressive assessment.  This will help the students acquaint themselves with the settings in which they will be practicing after qualification.

Regulations
The program shall be governed by the general regulations of the university and the  regulations of the College of health Sciences.

Admission Requirements

Direct Entry Scheme
For admission to the Bachelor of Biomedical Sciences (BBS) Degree programme under the Direct Entry Scheme, a candidate must have:

  • Uganda Certificate of Education Examinations (or its equivalent)
  • Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education (or equivalent) with two advanced level principal passes in any two of the following subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Food and Nutrition and Physics taken at the same sitting.
  • Other relevant subjects are Agriculture; Mathematics.

 

All candidates for this program should obtain minimum-weighed points as shall be determined by the Admissions Board 

 Mature Age Entry Scheme
For admissions to the BBS. Degree programme under the Mature Age Entry Scheme, a candidate must sit and pass the Mature Age Entrance Examinations set and marked by Makerere University.  He/she must satisfy all other university requirements for the admission to the university as laid down under the Mature Age Entry Scheme guidelines.

Diploma Holders Entry Scheme
For admissions into the BBSc. Programme under the Diploma Holders Entry Scheme a candidate must have the following:-

  • A good second class diploma or certificate in health disciplines
  • A’Level certificate in related subjects

Such diplomas may include;
Medical Laboratory Technologists
Radiographers
Anaesthetic Assistants/Officers
Clinical Officers
Clinical Ophthalmic officers
Physiotherapists
Environmental Health Officers
Public Health Officers
Public Health Dental Assistants
Public Health Assistants
Dispensers
Psychiatric Clinical Officers
Holders of a diploma in health education

And
Uganda Registered Nurses (with A-level certificate)
Uganda Registered Midwives (with A-level certificate)

Assessment and Examinations
At the end of each semester, students will require to sit and pass examinations in those courses that have been offered.  During the semester the student will do progressive tests  which will account for 30% of the final exam mark.
The courses will be assessed in two parts:

  • Progressive assessment contributes not more than 40% of the total marks.
  • End of semester examinations will consist of a written and oral examinations contributing not more than 60% of the total marks.

Each course shall be graded out of a maximum of one hundred (100) marks and assigned appropriate letter grades and grade points as follows.

 

Marks % Point

Letter Grade

Grade Point

80 – 100

A

5

75 - 79.9

B+

4.5

70 - 74.9

B

4

65 - 69.9

B-

3.5

60 - 64.9

C+

3

55 - 59.9

C

2.5

50 - 54.9

C-

2

45 - 49.9

D+

1.5

40 - 44.9

D

1

35 - 39.0

D-

0.5

Below 35

E

0

A student who fails a course should be put on probationary progress.  A student is regarded to progress normally if the progressive assessment and end of semester examination results adds up to CGPA of 2.0

Student Progress
Progression of a student shall be classified as Normal, Probationary or Discontinuation

Normal Progress
Normal progress occurs when a student has passed each of the specified courses with a minimum grade point of 2 and has a CGPA of 2 or above.

 Probationary Progress
A student shall be on probation:

  • when she/he fails a compulsory course or
  • if his/her GPA or CGPA is less than two (2.0)

When the grade Point Average of a student goes up to 2.0 or above and the
student has passed all the compulsory courses in the following semester,      then the probation is removed.  The probationary status serves as a warning to students that their performance is below the level required

Discontinuation
That a student is discontinued when she/he has received three consecutive probations based on CGPA of the same core courses.

 Withdraw from a Program Course
A registered student may choose to withdraw from a program/course(s) for various reasons.

Retaking of a course
A failed course will be taken when it is next offered.

Certificate of due performance
A student shall be responsible for keeping a record of her/his practical experience in a log record book, which should be duly signed by the student, practical supervisor and course lecturer; for presentation to the Head of Department, before a certificate of due performance can be issued.  Attendance of classroom, clinical and fieldwork shall constitute 10% of the Progressive mark.  A candidate will be denied a Certificate of Due Performance in any course, if attendance and performance in class, clinical and practical are deemed unsatisfactory.

Degree Awards
The Award shall be called Bachelor of Biomedical Sciences. The degree shall be awarded with classification according to the University guidelines. Performance in individual courses shall be graded according to the approved semester system grading.  The Degree will show the students’ specialisation in any one of the following subjects: physiology, anatomy, microbiology, pathology, haematology, molecular science, clinical chemistry and pharmacology.

Programme Structure

Duration
This is a three-year academic programme.  Every academic year shall have two 17-week semesters and one 10-week recess term except in the third year, which will have no recess semester. The program has compulsory core courses in the first and second years with a choice of elective courses in the second semester of the third year. 

Curriculum implementation structure
This depicts allocation of time to various curricula activities. The activities and their symbols are shown below:

  • Clinical Sessions are shown as Cl.H (Clinical hours)
  • Laboratory sessions are shown as Lb.H (laboratory hours)
  • Overview lectures and seminars are shown as LH (lecture hours)
  • Skills laboratory activities, Practicals and Clinical Exposure are shown as PH (practical hours)
  • Tutorials sessions are shown as TH (tutorial hours)
  • Self directed learning is shown as SH (self-study hours)

1          Clinical /Laboratory hour        = 1 contact hour
1          Lecture hour    = 1 contact hour
2          Tutorial hours  = 1 contact hour
2          Practical hours             = 1 contact hour
2          Self study hours = 1 contact hour
1          Credit Unit      = 15 contact hours

Curriculum Map
Year 1
Block 1


Semester I

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS   1111:Introduction to Biomedical Sciences, health professional education and Biomedical Ethics 

3

5

18

12

44

45

3

FOM 1112: Cells and Tissues

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

FOM 1113: Blood & Body Fluids

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS1112: Introduction to Bioinformatics

2

6

12

8

24

30

2

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Block 2


Semester II

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

FOM 1211:Cardiovascular & Respiratory            System

5

10

30

2

70

75

5

FOM 1212: Digestion, Nutrition & Metabolism

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

FOM 1213: Foundations of Behavioural Sciences

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Block 3


Recess Term

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

FOM 1311: Introduction to Community Health I

2

12

24

32

36

60

4

FOM 1312:Introduction to Community Health II

2

12

24

32

36

60

4

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

Year 2
Block 1


Semester I

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 2111:Endocrine, reproductive and Urinary system

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS  2112: Head,  Neck and the Nuerolocomotor system

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

B BS 2113: Introduction Health policy and legislation

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS 2114: Principles Health Economics

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

Totals

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

Block 2


Semester II

LH

Cl.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

FOM 2211:Principles of Microbiology             & Pathology

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS 2212:General Pharmacology

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS 2213: Infectious Diseases

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Block 3

Recess Term

LH

L.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS  2301: Laboratory management and safety and Material Science  

5

10

20

20

20

45

3

FOM 2312: Community Diagnosis and Communication

-

60

-

-

30

45

3

Totals

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

Year 3
Block 1

Semester I

LH

Lb.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3101         Research Proposal writing and Data management 

2

-

30

10

16

30

2

BBS 3102: Non –communicable diseases

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

BBS 3103: Reproductive health and Child survival

5

10

30

20

70

75

5

Select any 2 courses including medicine and gender

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BBS 3103:      Medical anthropology

2

12

24

32

36

60

4

BBS 3104: Medical geography

2

12

24

32

36

60

4

BBS 3105: History of medicine

2

12

24

32

36

60

4

BBS 3106: Medicine and gender

2

12

24

32

36

60

4

Totals

 

 

 

 

 

 

21

Option I:  Pharmacology

Semester II

LH

Lb.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3201:  Chemotherapeutic agents and antimicrobial resistance

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3202:  Drug development, registration, marketing and regulatory issues

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

  BBS 3203:  Toxicology, drug Abuse and drug safety issues         

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS 3204:  Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

45

3

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Option II : Microbiology

Semester II

LH

Lb.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3205:  Applied bacteriology and parasitology

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

BBS 3206: Applied Mycology and Virology

6

20

18

20

20

45

3

BBS 3207. Routine diagnostic Techniques

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

45

3

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Option III: Anatomy

Semester II

LH

L.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3208 Embryology, Human development and Comparative anatomy

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3209 Microscopic anatomy and histological techniques

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

       BBS 3210 Tissue preservation and embalming       

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

45

3

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Option IV: Heamatology

Semester II

LH

L.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3211:  Blood and Heamopoetic tissue disorders

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3212:  Diagnostic approaches in haematology

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

BBS 3213: Transfusion and stem cell transplantation

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

45

3

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Option VII: Histopathology

Semester II

LH

L.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3214. Laboratory techniques in histopathology

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3216       Autopsy and Mortuary Techniques

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS 3215       Special Ancillary Diagnostic techniques in pathology

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

45

3

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Option V: Molecular Biology

Semester II

LH

L.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3217       Advanced concepts of cell biology and principles of microscopic analysis

4

15

30

20

60

75

5

BBS 3218       Principles of molecular biology

5

15

30

20

60

75

5

BBS 3219       Advanced molecular biology and biotechnology

2

6

12

8

24

30

2

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

45

3

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Option VI: Physiology

Semester II

LH

L.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3220       Application of  Radioimmunoassay and Imaging techniques

4

15

30

20

60

75

5

BBS 3221       Physiological Assessment of brain and Nueronal functions.

5

15

30

20

60

75

5

BBS 3222: Physiological assessment of body systems

2

6

12

8

24

30

2

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

45

3

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Option IIX: Clinical Chemistry

Semester II

LH

L.H

TH

PH

SH

CH

CU

BBS 3223. Clinical chemistry Equipments and Instrumentation

8

30

24

30

30

60

4

BBS 3224       Clinical Biochemistry and disease processes

3

15

20

15

30

45

3

BBS 3225       Principles and applications of laboratory techniques

10

30

30

30

40

75

5

BBS 3204 Dissertation writing

3

15

30

20

60

45

3

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Year III:

BBS 3101       Research Proposal writing and Data management    
Course description
In this course the student will be helped to develop a project proposal on a subject of their choice in their area of specialisation.  This proposal will be presented to the department in the form of an oral exam.  Once passed the student will then be allowed to proceed to implement the proposal as a dissertation.

Teaching resources

Human resource
The program will be taught in the following departments; Pathology, Physiology, Anatomy, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Public Health , Paediatrics and Child health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology  and other Units of Mulago National referral Hospital. A detailed list of teaching staff on the proposed program is indicated in table 1 below.

Table 1:  Academic staff to teach on the program

Name

Title

Qualifications

Status

Current TL (hrs/wk)

Proposed TL(hrs/wk)

Dr. Dan Wamala

SC

MB.Ch.B, M.Med (Path). M.Med.Sc.(Cytopath)-

PT

10

12

Prof.Byarugaba

L

B.SC.M.MSc.PhD.

PT

2

4

Prof.Paul Waako

AP

M.B ChB,M.Sc.PhD

FT

10

12

Dr.P. Misaki

L

M.B.Ch.B, M.SC.

FT

8

10

Dr. Joseph Ochieng

L

M.B.Ch.B, M.Sc.(Anat.)

FT

10

12

Dr.Michael Odida

L

MB,Ch.B, M.Med.(Path)

FT

10

12

 Prof.Henry Wabinga

P

MB,Ch.B, M.Med.(Path)MD

FT

10

12

Dr.Lynette Tumwine

L

MB,Ch.B, M.Med.(Path

FT

8

12

Dr.Josephine Kasolo

SL

M.B.Ch.B, M.Sc.(Physio.)

PT

10

12

Dr.David Othieno

C

MB,Ch.B, M.Med.(Path

FT

6

8

Dr Andrew Okwi

T

BSc. M.SC.

FT

8

10

Mr.Oswalt

T

BLT, M.Sc.Lab magt

FT

10

12

Prof.Moses Joloba

AP

MB ChB, M.Sc., PhD

FT

10

12

Prof.Gabriel Bimenya

P

B.Sc, M.Sc. PhD

FT

8

10

Dr.Henry Kajjumbura

SL

MBCH.B.,M.Med(Micro.)

FT

8

12

Dr.Christine Najjuka

L

MBCH.B.,M.Med(Micro

FT

10

12

Dr. Fred Bwanga

L

MBChB,MMED ,PHD

FT

10

12

Dr.Achiles Katamba

L

MB.ChB, PHD

FT

10

12

Dr.Byamugisha

L

MB ChB, M.Med, PhD.

FT

10

12

Dr. Benon Asiimwe

l

BVM,MMED, PHD

FT

10

12

Prof. Kaddu Mulindwa

L

BVM,MSc, PhD

FT

10

12

Dr. Hakim Sendagire

L

MB ChB, M.Sc., PhD

FT

8

10

Dr, Okoth  Ndiira

L

MB,Ch.B, M.Med.

PT

10

12

Dr. Orach Garamoi

SL

MBchB MPH PhD

FT

8

10

Dr. Charles Ibingira

SL

MBchB Mmed

FT

6

10

Prof. Celestino Obua

AP

MD, MSc. PhD

FT

8

10

Dr. Peter Waiswa

L

MB ChB, M.Med, PhD.

FT

8

10

Prof. Jasper OgwalOkeng

P

M.B ChB,M.Sc.PhD

FT

8

10

Prof. G. Olobo

P

MB ChB, M.Med, PhD.

FT

8

10

Dr. David Makumbi

SL

BSc. MPH, PHD

FT

8

10

Dr. Joel Okullo

SL

MBChB MSc.

FT

8

10

Dr. Hawa Nalwoga

sl

MB ChB, M.Med, PhD.

FT

8

10

Dr.Nabadda

cons

MBchB Mmed

 

6

8

 


 L-lecturer, SL-Senior Lecturer, AP-Associate professor, P-Professor
SC-Senior Consultant , C-Consultant,  PT-Part time, FT-Full Time, TL-Teaching Load

Laboratory Equipments and specimens
Physical Facilities

  1. Pathology lecture theatre for lectures
  2. The cytology laboratory
  3. The Histopathology laboratory
  4. Davis Lecture theaters.
  5. Molecular pathology Laboratory
  6. Immunohistochemistry Laboratory.
  7. Mortuary lecture theatre.
  8. Hospital Pathology Laboratory.
  9. Microbiology Laboratory
  10. Immunoflorence Laboratory-Mulago Hospital
  11. Mortuary

How to Apply
Application forms are available at 5th floor Senate building or online at the School of Graduates Studies